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Publications in 2014 of type Article, Conference Proceedings and Edited Conference Proceedings

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    2014

    • Friedrich Groß, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, Thomas C. Schmidt, and Bernd Schwarz. A Hardware/Software Co-Design Approach for Ethernet Controllers to Support Time-triggered Traffic in the Upcoming IEEE TSN Standards. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). Pages 9—13, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Due to the increasing bandwidth and timing requirements, next generation communication backbones in cars will most likely base on real-time Ethernet variants that satisfy the demands of the new automotive applications. The upcoming IEEE 802.1Qbv standard shows communication approaches based on coordinated time devision multiple access (TDMA) to be good candidates for providing communication with determinism and highly precise timing. Implementing time-triggered architectures in software requires significant development effort and computational power. This paper shows a scalable HW/SW co-design approach for new real-time Ethernet controllers based on the partitioning into communication and application components. The tasks required for communication are divided: Time-critical and computationally intensive parts are realised in dedicated hardware modules allowing the attached CPU to fulfil the timing requirements of the automotive application without interference. The evaluation using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based prototype implementation shows that the precision for the time-triggered transmission and the performance of the proposed implementation of the required synchronisation protocols satisfies the requirements of applications in the automotive domain.

      @InProceedings{   gskss-hscda-14,
        author        = {Friedrich Gro{\ss} AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Thomas C. Schmidt AND Bernd Schwarz},
        title         = {{A Hardware/Software Co-Design Approach for Ethernet
                        Controllers to Support Time-triggered Traffic in the
                        Upcoming IEEE TSN Standards}},
        booktitle     = {2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
                        - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin)},
        location      = {Berlin},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {9--13},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-6165-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2014.7034229},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7034229},
        abstract      = {Due to the increasing bandwidth and timing requirements,
                        next generation communication backbones in cars will most
                        likely base on real-time Ethernet variants that satisfy the
                        demands of the new automotive applications. The upcoming
                        IEEE 802.1Qbv standard shows communication approaches based
                        on coordinated time devision multiple access (TDMA) to be
                        good candidates for providing communication with
                        determinism and highly precise timing. Implementing
                        time-triggered architectures in software requires
                        significant development effort and computational power.
                        This paper shows a scalable HW/SW co-design approach for
                        new real-time Ethernet controllers based on the
                        partitioning into communication and application components.
                        The tasks required for communication are divided:
                        Time-critical and computationally intensive parts are
                        realised in dedicated hardware modules allowing the
                        attached CPU to fulfil the timing requirements of the
                        automotive application without interference. The evaluation
                        using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based
                        prototype implementation shows that the precision for the
                        time-triggered transmission and the performance of the
                        proposed implementation of the required synchronisation
                        protocols satisfies the requirements of applications in the
                        automotive domain.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Ruben Jungnickel, and Franz Korf. Object Tracking and Dynamic Estimation on Evidential Grids. In: 17th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2014). Pages 2310—2316, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Autonomous driving is one of the most challenging tasks of the automotive industry. As a subtask, the estimation of driveable and non driveable space is often solved by applying occupancy grids. The information about non driveable space can be used to improve object tracking. This paper presents an approach for object tracking and modelling in an occupancy grid map. Tracking objects on grid cells yields the advantage of a consistent environmental model on the occupancy grid map. We introduce the occupancy grid map as the only information source for the object tracking module. Taking advantage of the Dempster Shafer theory, a dynamic belief of conflicting cells can be estimated. This dynamic belief is then accumulated in a tracked object model. This is a grid based free form object model that uses detached grid cells to model vehicles in urban environment. We reduce false positives and initialization time by maintaining a dynamic belief for each object.

      @InProceedings{   jk-otdee-14,
        author        = {Ruben Jungnickel AND Franz Korf},
        title         = {{Object Tracking and Dynamic Estimation on Evidential
                        Grids}},
        booktitle     = {17th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent
                        Transportation Systems (ITSC 2014)},
        location      = {Qingdao, China},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {2310--2316},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-6165-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ITSC.2014.6958060},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {6958060},
        abstract      = {Autonomous driving is one of the most challenging tasks of
                        the automotive industry. As a subtask, the estimation of
                        driveable and non driveable space is often solved by
                        applying occupancy grids. The information about non
                        driveable space can be used to improve object tracking.
                        This paper presents an approach for object tracking and
                        modelling in an occupancy grid map. Tracking objects on
                        grid cells yields the advantage of a consistent
                        environmental model on the occupancy grid map. We introduce
                        the occupancy grid map as the only information source for
                        the object tracking module. Taking advantage of the
                        Dempster Shafer theory, a dynamic belief of conflicting
                        cells can be estimated. This dynamic belief is then
                        accumulated in a tracked object model. This is a grid based
                        free form object model that uses detached grid cells to
                        model vehicles in urban environment. We reduce false
                        positives and initialization time by maintaining a dynamic
                        belief for each object.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Jan Kamieth, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Design of TDMA-based In-Car Networks: Applying Multiprocessor Scheduling Strategies on Time-triggered Switched Ethernet Communication. In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2014). Pages 1—9, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Real-time Ethernet variants gain importance for communication infrastructure of various time-critical domains, such as in-car networks. Synchronous time-triggered traffic guarantees strict timing but requires a detailed schedule for all participants. Designing these schedules by hand is extensive work and with increasing network size almost impossible. In this paper, we contribute a mapping of the time-triggered network scheduling problem into the domain of multiprocessor scheduling. This set of transformation rules allows us to apply established scheduling algorithms as well as new strategies to organise time-triggered switched networks. Experimental results from a prototype implementation of a scheduling framework based on this mapping show the feasibility of our concept. The framework demonstrates a multiple solver approach that uses algorithms with different optimality criteria in parallel.

      @InProceedings{   ksks-dtina-14,
        author        = {Jan Kamieth AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas
                        C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Design of TDMA-based In-Car Networks: Applying
                        Multiprocessor Scheduling Strategies on Time-triggered
                        Switched Ethernet Communication}},
        booktitle     = {19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging
                        Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2014)},
        location      = {Barcelona},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {1--9},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-4846-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005119},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7005119},
        abstract      = {Real-time Ethernet variants gain importance for
                        communication infrastructure of various time-critical
                        domains, such as in-car networks. Synchronous
                        time-triggered traffic guarantees strict timing but
                        requires a detailed schedule for all participants.
                        Designing these schedules by hand is extensive work and
                        with increasing network size almost impossible. In this
                        paper, we contribute a mapping of the time-triggered
                        network scheduling problem into the domain of
                        multiprocessor scheduling. This set of transformation rules
                        allows us to apply established scheduling algorithms as
                        well as new strategies to organise time-triggered switched
                        networks. Experimental results from a prototype
                        implementation of a scheduling framework based on this
                        mapping show the feasibility of our concept. The framework
                        demonstrates a multiple solver approach that uses
                        algorithms with different optimality criteria in
                        parallel.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Soeren Rumpf, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Software Stacks for Mixed-critical Applications: Consolidating IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-triggered Ethernet in Next-generation Automotive Electronics. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin). Pages 14—18, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      Real-time Ethernet variants are expected to build the future communication infrastructure in cars. First camera based driver assistance functions will communicate using IEEE 802.1 AVBs credit-based shaping. But for the strict timing requirements of automotive control-traffic, AVBs current timing guarantees are insufficient. The upcoming IEEE 802.1Qbv standard proposes synchronous time-triggered traffic to overcome these limitations. This paper presents a low footprint microcontroller based communication architecture, that supports both traffic classes in parallel while using standard hardware components. It allows first realistic performance analyses of coexistent traffic shaping strategies in a software based implementation.

      @InProceedings{   rsks-ssmac-14,
        author        = {Soeren Rumpf AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas
                        C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Software Stacks for Mixed-critical Applications:
                        Consolidating IEEE 802.1 AVB and Time-triggered Ethernet in
                        Next-generation Automotive Electronics}},
        booktitle     = {2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
                        - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin)},
        location      = {Berlin},
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {14--18},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-6165-8},
        doi           = {10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2014.7034239},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7034239},
        abstract      = {Real-time Ethernet variants are expected to build the
                        future communication infrastructure in cars. First camera
                        based driver assistance functions will communicate using
                        IEEE 802.1 AVBs credit-based shaping. But for the strict
                        timing requirements of automotive control-traffic, AVBs
                        current timing guarantees are insufficient. The upcoming
                        IEEE 802.1Qbv standard proposes synchronous time-triggered
                        traffic to overcome these limitations. This paper presents
                        a low footprint microcontroller based communication
                        architecture, that supports both traffic classes in
                        parallel while using standard hardware components. It
                        allows first realistic performance analyses of coexistent
                        traffic shaping strategies in a software based
                        implementation.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Till Steinbach, Kai Müller, Franz Korf, and René Röllig. Real-time Ethernet In-Car Backbones: First Insights into an Automotive Prototype. In: 2014 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). Pages 137—138, Piscataway, NJ, USA, Dec. 2014, IEEE Press,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [DOI], [IEEE Xplore], [Bibtex]

      The communication infrastructure of today's automobiles forms a complex composition of heterogeneously interconnected components. At the same time, demands for higher bandwidth and low-latency communication are emerging from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established technologies. A new approach towards a flexible highly scalable network is real-time Ethernet. The RECBAR research project develops and evaluates concepts and technologies for next-generation in-car backbones. In this demo we show a prototype based on a 2014 Volkswagen Golf 7 series car additionally equipped with high-bandwidth sensors, such as HD cameras and 3D laser scanners. The car uses a backbone network utilising time-triggered real-time Ethernet for the deterministic transmission of messages with hard real-time as well as rate-limiting and best-effort frames for messages with relaxed timing requirements. On the physical layer the setup utilises the OPEN Alliance 100Mbit/s BroadR-Reach (OABR or 100 BASE-T1) in addition to 100 BASE-TX.

      @InProceedings{   smkr-reicb-14,
        author        = {Till Steinbach AND Kai M{\"u}ller AND Franz Korf AND
                        Ren{\'e} R{\"o}llig},
        title         = {{Real-time Ethernet In-Car Backbones: First Insights into
                        an Automotive Prototype}},
        booktitle     = {2014 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)},
        location      = {Paderborn},
        month         = dec,
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {137--138},
        publisher     = {IEEE Press},
        address       = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
        isbn          = {978-1-4799-7659-1},
        issn          = {2157-9865},
        doi           = {10.1109/VNC.2014.7013331},
        eprinttype    = {ieeexplore},
        eprint        = {7013331},
        abstract      = {The communication infrastructure of today's automobiles
                        forms a complex composition of heterogeneously
                        interconnected components. At the same time, demands for
                        higher bandwidth and low-latency communication are emerging
                        from chassis control, camera based driver assistance and
                        infotainment that cannot be accommodated by established
                        technologies. A new approach towards a flexible highly
                        scalable network is real-time Ethernet. The RECBAR research
                        project develops and evaluates concepts and technologies
                        for next-generation in-car backbones. In this demo we show
                        a prototype based on a 2014 Volkswagen Golf 7 series car
                        additionally equipped with high-bandwidth sensors, such as
                        HD cameras and 3D laser scanners. The car uses a backbone
                        network utilising time-triggered real-time Ethernet for the
                        deterministic transmission of messages with hard real-time
                        as well as rate-limiting and best-effort frames for
                        messages with relaxed timing requirements. On the physical
                        layer the setup utilises the OPEN Alliance 100Mbit/s
                        BroadR-Reach (OABR or 100 BASE-T1) in addition to 100
                        BASE-TX.},
        langid        = {english}
      }
    • Florian Bartols, Till Steinbach, Franz Korf, Bettina Buth, and Thomas C. Schmidt. Real-time Ethernet Residual Bus Simulation: A Model-Based Testing Approach for the Next-Generation In-Car Network. In: 22nd International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS) 2014. Pages 267—276, New York, Oct. 2014, ACM-DL,
      [Abstract], [Fulltext Document (pdf)], [Slides (pdf)], [DOI], [ACM DL], [Bibtex]

      The increasing complexity of automotive networks, their challenging timing constraints and their high bandwidth demands require new concepts for future in-car communication. Real-time Ethernet is meant to be a suitable candidate for the next-generation in-car interconnection. However, model-based testing capabilities must be available as well. Applications must be validated prior the first assembly, due to the distributed development process. Methods like residual bus simulation are of particular interest to allow for testing systems in early development stages by emulating unfinished or not available parts of the system. In this paper, we present a methodology and a feasibility study of a residual bus simulation in automotive real-time Ethernet systems. The challenges of applying this testing method in real-time Ethernet based networks with parallel packet transmission are outlined and compared to today's automotive bus system simulation approaches. Furthermore, the combination of different model-based testing techniques, that are not used in state-of-the-art commercial tools, are applied for the validation of non-functional timing requirements. An extension to an existing abstract test case model is proposed, which allows modelling temporal attributes. It is simultaneously used as simulation model to drive the residual bus simulation. We demonstrate the approach's feasibility by implementing a prototype residual bus simulator for real-time Ethernet networks and applying it to an example application.

      @InProceedings{   bskbs-rerbs-14,
        author        = {Florian Bartols AND Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND
                        Bettina Buth AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
        title         = {{Real-time Ethernet Residual Bus Simulation: A Model-Based
                        Testing Approach for the Next-Generation In-Car Network}},
        booktitle     = {22nd International Conference on Real-Time Networks and
                        Systems (RTNS) 2014},
        location      = {Versailles, France},
        month         = oct,
        year          = 2014,
        pages         = {267--276},
        publisher     = {ACM-DL},
        address       = {New York},
        isbn          = {978-1-4503-2727-5},
        doi           = {10.1145/2659787.2659800},
        eprinttype    = {acmdl},
        eprint        = {2659800},
        abstract      = {The increasing complexity of automotive networks, their
                        challenging timing constraints and their high bandwidth
                        demands require new concepts for future in-car
                        communication. Real-time Ethernet is meant to be a suitable
                        candidate for the next-generation in-car interconnection.
                        However, model-based testing capabilities must be available
                        as well. Applications must be validated prior the first
                        assembly, due to the distributed development process.
                        Methods like residual bus simulation are of particular
                        interest to allow for testing systems in early development
                        stages by emulating unfinished or not available parts of
                        the system. In this paper, we present a methodology and a
                        feasibility study of a residual bus simulation in
                        automotive real-time Ethernet systems. The challenges of
                        applying this testing method in real-time Ethernet based
                        networks with parallel packet transmission are outlined and
                        compared to today's automotive bus system simulation
                        approaches. Furthermore, the combination of different
                        model-based testing techniques, that are not used in
                        state-of-the-art commercial tools, are applied for the
                        validation of non-functional timing requirements. An
                        extension to an existing abstract test case model is
                        proposed, which allows modelling temporal attributes. It is
                        simultaneously used as simulation model to drive the
                        residual bus simulation. We demonstrate the approach's
                        feasibility by implementing a prototype residual bus
                        simulator for real-time Ethernet networks and applying it
                        to an example application.},
        langid        = {english},
        series        = {RTNS '14}
      }
    • Anna Förster, Christoph Sommer, Till Steinbach, and Matthias Wählisch. Proceedings of the 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit, Hamburg, Germany, September 2, 2014. Aug. 2014, ArXiv e-prints,
      [ArXiv], [Bibtex]
      @Proceedings{     fssw-ocshg-14,
        editor        = {Anna F{\"o}rster AND Christoph Sommer AND Till Steinbach
                        AND Matthias W{\"a}hlisch},
        title         = {{Proceedings of the 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit, Hamburg,
                        Germany, September 2, 2014}},
        month         = aug,
        year          = 2014,
        publisher     = {ArXiv e-prints},
        eprinttype    = {arxiv},
        eprint        = {1409.0093},
        eprintclass   = {cs.PF},
        keywords      = {Computer Science - Performance, I.6, C.2.0, C.4, D.4.8},
        langid        = {english}
      }