Simulation tools are of vital importance to explore the technical feasibility and facilitate the distributed process of vehicle infra­struc­ture design. CoRE is working on simulation models for the event-based simulation of real-time Ethernet protocols and state-of the art field busses. Our Real-time Ethernet simulation model is published as open-source module.

To evaluate the feasibility of an Ethernet-based unified communication infrastructure for future in-vehicle applications, it is important to identify characteristic and comparable network metrics. A future option of technological and economic success can be only made on the ground of these valid performance estimates. Further, a detailed quantitative analysis allows for optimisations, including a critical view on proposed solutions, and can be used to rate improvements of the components and protocols. Event-based simulation is suitable for these analyses and provides the necessary performance estimates. Since automotive applications have very strict requirements – usually the temporal precision must be within a few microseconds – it is necessary to simulate the temporal behaviour with high accuracy.

During the development process of a car, several service providers and suppliers are involved. Different components are designed by various partners. The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is responsible for the design and configuration of the in-vehicle communication infrastructure. Temporal attributes and information about the load of an in-vehicle backbone are necessary at an early stage of the development, when the components are not yet available. Further extensions and build-to-order variants must be regarded and result in a large configuration space. Thus, a simulation-based evaluation strategy is indispensable for the design of an in-vehicle backbone. It allows the evaluation of different configuration parameters before construction and in a more comprehensive manner. Requirements for suppliers and service providers are assigned based on the simulation results.

Publication related to simulation:

  • T. Steinbach, H. Dieumo Kenfack, F. Korf, and T. C. Schmidt. An Extension of the OMNeT++ INET Framework for Simulating Real-time Ethernet with High Accuracy. In Proceedings of the 4th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques, SIMUTools '11, pages 375-382, ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium, 2011. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).(PDF, Slides, BibTeX)
    @InProceedings{   sdkks-eifre-11,
      author        = {Till Steinbach AND Hermand {Dieumo Kenfack} AND Franz Korf
                      AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
      title         = {{An Extension of the OMNeT++ INET Framework for Simulating
                      Real-time Ethernet with High Accuracy}},
      booktitle     = {Proceedings of the 4th International ICST Conference on
                      Simulation Tools and Techniques},
      location      = {Barcelona, Spain},
      year          = 2011,
      pages         = {375--382},
      publisher     = {ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics
                      and Telecommunications Engineering)},
      address       = {ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium},
      isbn          = {978-1-936968-00-8},
      abstract      = {Real-time extensions to standard switched Ethernet widen
                      the realm of computer networking into the time-critical
                      domain. These technologies have started to establish in
                      process automation, while Ethernet-based communication
                      infrastructures in vehicles are novel and challenged by
                      particularly hard real-time constraints. Simulation tools
                      are of vital importance to explore the technical
                      feasibility and facilitate the distributed process of
                      vehicle infrastructure design. This paper introduces an
                      extension of the OMNeT++ INET framework for simulating
                      real-time Ethernet with high temporal accuracy. Our module
                      implements the TTEthernet protocol, a real-time extension
                      to standard Ethernet that is proposed for standardisation.
                      We present the major implementation aspects of the
                      simulation model and apply our tool to an abstract
                      in-vehicle backbone. A careful evaluation that compares our
                      results with calculations obtained from a mathematical
                      framework, as well as with real-world measurements using
                      TTEthernet hardware shows simulation and reality in good
      series        = {SIMUTools '11}
  • T. Steinbach, F. Korf, and T. C. Schmidt. Simulation und Evaluation von Echtzeit-Ethernet in Fahrzeugnetzen. PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation, 35(2):67-74, May 2012.(BibTeX)
    @Article{         sks-seeef-12,
      author        = {Till Steinbach AND Franz Korf AND Thomas C. Schmidt},
      title         = {{Simulation und Evaluation von Echtzeit-Ethernet in
      journal       = {PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und
      month         = may,
      year          = 2012,
      pages         = {67--74},
      volume        = {35},
      number        = {2},
      publisher     = {De Gruyter},
      address       = {Berlin},
      issn          = {0930-5157}
  • Philipp Meyer, Franz Korf, Till Steinbach, and Thomas C Schmidt. Simulation of Mixed Critical In-vehicular Networks. In: Recent Advances in Network Simulation. Pages 317—345, 2019, Springer (BibTeX)
    @InCollection{    mkss-smcin-19,
      author        = {Meyer, Philipp and Korf, Franz and Steinbach, Till and
                      Schmidt, Thomas C},
      title         = {Simulation of Mixed Critical In-vehicular Networks},
      booktitle     = {Recent Advances in Network Simulation},
      year          = 2019,
      pages         = {317--345},
      publisher     = {Springer},
      url           = {},
      eprinttype    = {arxiv},
      eprint        = {1808.03081},
      abstract      = {Future automotive applications ranging from advanced
                      driver assistance to autonomous driving will largely
                      increase demands on in-vehicular networks. Data flows of
                      high bandwidth or low latency requirements, but in
                      particular many additional communication relations will
                      introduce a new level of complexity to the in-car
                      communication system. It is expected that future
                      communication backbones which interconnect sensors and
                      actuators with Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in cars will
                      be built on Ethernet technologies. However, signaling from
                      different application domains demands for network services
                      of tailored attributes, including real-time transmission
                      protocols as defined in the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN)
                      Ethernet extensions. These Quality of Service (QoS)
                      constraints will increase network complexity even further.
                      Event-based simulation is a key technology to master the
                      challenges of an in-car network design. This chapter
                      introduces the domain-specific aspects and simulation
                      models for in-vehicular networks and presents an overview
                      of the car-centric network design process. Starting from a
                      domain-specific description language, we cover the
                      corresponding simulation models with their workflows and
                      apply our approach to a related case study for an in-car
                      network of a premium car.},
      langid        = {english}

Further publications can be found in the publications section.